Types of Setting:
Neutral setting: the setting is not important, just a place where the action takes place.
Spiritual setting: the values embodied in the physical setting; there is no easy relationship between physical setting and moral values.
Dynamic setting: the setting may take on the role of a character.
Elements of a setting:
Geography (topography, scenery, interiors, etc.)
Occupation and lifestyle of characters
Religious, intellectual, and moral environment
Functions of a setting:
Setting as a methaphor: the setting projects the internal state of the characters or a pervasive spiritual atmosphere.
Atmosphere: a mood or emotional aura suggested by the setting and helping to establish the reader’s expectations.
Setting as the dominant element:
Time, especially in historical novels
Place, regionalist or local color novels (spiritual as well as geographical)
Setting should lend unity to the novel: What does it contribute?