Point of View means that the story is told through the eyes and mouth of a certain person; the story can change considerably, depending on who is telling it.
First person narrator. Story is told from the inside; narrator is a participant in the action. Narrator is often the protagonist or minor character; we see only what he/she sees, in the way that he/she sees it.Advantage: first person narrator has immediacy and a sense of life. Disadvantage: the author may be frustrated in that he/she can only include things that the narrator would be expected to know; also, we are locked within the mind of the narrator.
Third person narrator. Usually a nameless narrator who can be identified with the author. Omniscient narrator: godlike narrator; he/she can enter character’s minds and know everything that is going on, past, present, and future. Advantage: very natural technique; author is, after all, omniscient regarding his work. Disadvantage: unlifelike; narrator knows and tells all; is truly a convention of literature.
Viewpoint character: third person narration that is limited to the point of view of one character in the novel; may be a protagonist or a minor character.
Objective viewpoint: limited narrative, like a drama; narrator can only describe words and actions that can be seen objectively and cannot get into character’s thoughts.
Combination of narrative techniques is possible in a novel.
Tense of narration is important; action narrated in the present can be more dramatic than past tense narration.