Point of view

Point of View means that the story is told through the eyes and mouth of a certain person; the story can change considerably, depending on who is telling it.

First person narrator. Story is told from the inside; narrator is a participant in the action. Narrator is often the protagonist or minor character; we see only what he/she sees, in the way that he/she sees it.Advantage:  first person narrator has immediacy and a sense of life. Disadvantage:  the author may be frustrated in that he/she can only include things that the narrator would be expected to know; also, we are locked within the mind of the narrator.

Third person narrator. Usually a nameless narrator who can be identified with the author. Omniscient narrator:  godlike narrator; he/she can enter character’s minds and know everything that is going on, past, present, and future. Advantage:  very natural technique; author is, after all, omniscient regarding his work. Disadvantage:  unlifelike; narrator knows and tells all; is truly a convention of literature.

Viewpoint character:  third person narration that is limited to the point of view of one character in the novel; may be a protagonist or a minor character.

Objective viewpoint:  limited narrative, like a drama; narrator can only describe words and actions that can be seen objectively and cannot get into character’s thoughts.

Combination of narrative techniques is possible in a novel.

Tense of narration is important; action narrated in the present can be more dramatic than past tense narration.

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Style and literary standards. All writers have a style, but not all styles are good. Whether a style is good or bad largely depends on whether it is appropriate to the work. What does the style lend to the work as a whole? Style should work with other elements to produce a final unity. Style is the author’s personal expression. It reveals his/her way of perceiving experience and organizing  perceptions. Style includes the author’s choice of words as well as arrangement of words into phrases, sentences, and paragraphs. Elements of style:  diction, imagery, and syntax.

Diction: the author’s choice of words and their effect on the total work. Denotative meaning:  the literal meaning of a word. Connotative meaning:  suggestions and associations resulting from a word or group of words. Several words may have the same denotation, while differing significantly in their connotation. Is a writer’s style basically denotative or connotative?

Imagery:  the evocation of a sensory experience through words.

  • Literal images:  Suggest no change or extension in the meaning of a word; supply specific, concrete details.
  • Figurative images, or figures of speech; similes and metaphors
  • Recurrent images:  Repetitions of the same or similar images throughout a work can reinforce an effect that the author is trying to create.
  • Symbols:  The author’s attempts to represent areas of human experience that ordinary language cannot express;  the symbol evokes a concrete, objective reality while suggesting a level of meaning beyond that reality.
  • Archetypal image:  concept of Carl Jung.  There are images and symbols that are universal, existing from one culture to another, that always have the same meaning.
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Tone is the author’s attitude towards the subject
In literature, the author’s style and treatment of the subject reflect his/her attitude about the subject as well as an attitude towards the audience.
Components of tone:
Understatement:  casual or light treatment of the subject, it has two effects
shows that the author does not take a subject seriously
calls upon the moral indignation of the reader because the subject does not seem to be taken seriously.
Irony:  a discrepancy between what is stated and what is suggested; saying one thing and meaning another.
Hyperbole:  the opposite of understatement; exaggeration used for rhetorical effect: may be dramatic heightening.
The middle style:  style used by most authors, lying between understatement and hyperbole; presents an accurate picture of things as they are.
Failures in tone
Sentimentality:  author attempts to impose upon the material a greater emotional burden than it can comfortably bear.
Inhibition:  author’s failure to give due emotional weight to his material.
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Types of Setting:

Neutral setting: the setting is not important, just a place where the action takes place.

Spiritual setting: the values embodied in the physical setting; there is no easy relationship between physical setting and moral values.  

Dynamic setting: the setting may take on the role of a character.

Elements of a setting:

Geography (topography, scenery, interiors, etc.)

Occupation and lifestyle of characters


Religious, intellectual, and moral environment

Functions of a setting:

Setting as a methaphor: the setting projects the internal state of the characters or a pervasive spiritual atmosphere.

Atmosphere: a mood or emotional aura suggested by the setting and helping to establish the reader’s expectations.

Setting as the dominant element:

Time, especially in historical novels

Place, regionalist or local color novels (spiritual as well as geographical)

Setting should lend unity to the novel: What does it contribute?


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Online for Babies 1

Learning online

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Закончи Анекдот

Ответы Внизу


Mother: Come on John you have to get out of bed or you’ll be late for school.
John: Ahh mum do I have to, all the teachers hate me, and all the students hate me too.
Mother: Yes you do.
John: Give me a good reason
Mother: …………………………….


 Tim: Miss would you yell at me for doing something i didn’t do? 
Teacher: No. 
Tim: ……………………………………..



1. You’re 44 and your the Principal!

2. Good, because I didn’t do my homework!

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Protagonist: main character around whom most of the work revolves.

Antagonist: against protagonist. This is often the villain, but could be a force of nature, set of circumstances, animal, etc.

Major: These are the main characters. They dominate the story. Often there are only one or two majors characters.

Minor: These are the characters who help tell the major character’s tale by letting major characters interact and reveal their personalities.

Dynamic: (changing)

Static (unchanging)

Stereotypical (stock). Absent minded prof, jolly fat person, clueless blonde…etc.

Foil: These are the people whose job is to contrast with the major character. He either can be the opposite of the major character, so the major’s virtues and strengths are more visible. Or the foil can be like the major character, with light versions of the major virtues and strengths so that the major comes off even stronger.

Round: Character has more than one facet to their personality. This is a hardcore gamer but he does other things too. These experience growth and change by the end of the story. Ex from being meek and submissive to being strong and liberated. Does the character grow in a story?

Flat: This is the character who is only viewed through one side. This is a hardcore gamer, this is all there is about that character. Does not experience any growth or change. Usually comic villains.

Anti Hero:
Tragic Hero:
Romantic Hero:
Ethics: Just or Unjust choices
Wise or unwise actions. Does he make poor decisions that reflect something inside inner state. State pros and cons of each character’s internal thoughts and external actions

Character’s motivation. Why character is acting or thinking in a particular way. Has author given you any clues about the character’s past?

What are the effects of the character’s behavior on other characters.

Look for repeatedly used words that describe character. They give insight on psychology and motivations.

Be aware of items and objects associated with the character, they say something about their state of mind. Example, delicate unicorn is symbolic of Laura’s own sense of hope and fragility.

Read between lines. Often what character does not say is as important  as what he or she does say.

Consider historical time period. Refrain from making modern judgements about the past. Put the character’s actions and thoughts in context of their time. A female livng in 18th century cannot make choices that we can make today.

What does the author think. Look for any of the author’s own judgments about the characters he or she created. The author may be leading you towards an intended interpretation.

Challenge, conflict: Every main character is challenged in some way. One way of looking at this challenge is to see it as a situation in which a character’s abilities and experience are insufficient to solve the problem at hand. It is by engaging in these challenges, overcoming some, succumbing to others, that characters develop; they change as a result of what happens to them as they try to solve their problems and reach their goals. And it is this change, or set of changes, that often holds the key to unlocking a story’s meaning
Physical. What does the character look like? How do the character’s physical attributes play a role in the story? How does the character feel about his or her physical attributes? How does the character change physically during the story? How do these changes affect the character’s experience

Emotional. How does this character feel most of the time? How do his or her feelings change throughout the story? How does this character feel about himself or herself? When faced with challenges in the story, what emotions come up for this character

Intellectual. How would you describe this character’s intelligence? What does this character know? How does this character’s intellect compare to others in the story? Is this character smart enough to thrive in the world in which he or she lives? What does this character learn as the story develops
Social. How does this character get along with other characters in the story? Who does this character choose for friends and why does this character choose them? Where does this character stand in the social order? How does this character’s social standing affect events in the story
Philosophical. What does this character believe about the way life is? What are these beliefs based on? How do these beliefs affect the choices this character makes? How do those beliefs change throughout the story? Do others in the story share these beliefs
Moral: Ultimately, the big question I hope you think about is this: What can we learn from this character about how to live in the world? Reading a story is, after all, like watching an experiment. Given a set of characters and circumstances, we sit back and watch the results unfold. The greatest value in fiction, it seems to me, lies in what we can learn about our own lives when we take time to analyze someone else’s — even if that someone else is just a character in a story
How is this character is relevant to the reader?
How does he/she contribute to the story as a whole?
Simple Characters: May be stereotypes of a single characteristic: usually play major roles only in bad fiction. May be one-sided characters who do not represent universal types, predictible characters. Simple characters are often used to fulfill minor roles in the novel.
Complex Characters: These are more difficult to achieve. More lifelike than simple characters. Capable of surprising us. Gradations of complexity may exist. Character should be unified; should not act “out of character”. Consistency and believability are important.
Methods of character portrayal:
Discursive method: narrator tells their qualities. Disadvantage: it discourages reader’s use of imagination. Advantage, saves time.
Dramatic method: author allows characters to reveal themselves by how they act and speak. Advantage, characters are more lifelike, involves reader’s participation. Disadvantage, takes mre time and allows for possibility of misjudging characters.
Characters talk about other characters, information is not necesserily reliable.
Mixing methods: most common and the most effective.
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Movies for all ages

Документальный Фильм – Хребет России – Парфенов

Documentary Movie – The Case for Creator – Lee Strobel  

Movie – The Encounter

Художественный Фильм – Михайло Ломоносов – Мосфильм 1986

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Video 0 to 3 years




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Apples to Apples Кинофильмы

 1. Сделайте карточки 3 на 6 см и напишите на них цитаты из фильмов.

2. Сделайте второй тип карточек 10 на 15 см и напечатайте на них картинки. Это могут быть фото, комиксы без реплик, репродукции картин.

Как играть.

1. Карточки с цитатами поровну делятся по игрокам. Карточки  перед игроками повернуты так что бы те не видели что на них написано.

2. Ведущий кладет на середину лицом вверх картинку фото или репродукцию.

3. Каждый игрок выдвигает одну карточку не смотря что там написано.

4. Ведущий дает команду перевертнуть карточки с цитатами. Игроки по очереди читают их вслух.

5. Ведущий выбирает игрока с самым смешным или подходящим коментарием, тот выигрывает и забирает себе картинку. Он же становится ведущим на следущий раунд.

6. Игра заканчивается когда все картинки заканчиваются. Побеждает тот кто набрал больше всего картинок.

Внизу приведены примеры цитат и картинок.

— Наши люди в булочную на такси не ездят!

 — Товарищ, там человек говорит, что он — инопланетянин. Надо что-то делать… — Сеня, по-быстрому объясни товарищу, почему Володька сбрил усы.

 Я дежурный инженер по борьбе с клиентами

 Ты не дрыгайся! Показывай свою гравицаппу. Если фирменная вещь — возьмём!

 Бывает, проснешься как птица,
Крылатой пружиной на взводе.
И хочется жить и трудиться,
Но, к завтраку, это проходит

  Скрипач, вместо того, чтобы все время думать, что ты первый грузинский космонавт, и что тебе Нобелевскую премию дадут, верни ложку, которую ты у нищих артистов украл.

 Уэф, ты когда-нибудь видел, чтобы такой маленький пацак был таким меркантильным кю?

 — Оставь меня, старушка, я в печали…

 — Нон, найн, нихт, нет, ни в коем случае. Руссо туристо! Облико морале! Ферштейн?

 — Я не знаю, как там в Лондоне — я не была… Может, там собака — друг человека. А у нас управдом — друг человека!

 Цигель цигель ай люлю

 Между прочим, в соседнем районе жених украл… члена партии!Кавказская пленница

— Георгий Иванович, он же Гога, он же Гоша, он же Юрий, он же Гора, он же Жора, здесь проживает? 

 — Корнет, вы женщина?

 — Понимаете, каждый год 31 декабря мы с друзьями ходим в баню. Это у нас такая традиция…

— Цель приезда?
— Этнографическая экспедиция.
— Понятно. Нефть ищете? 

 Я понял, в чем ваша беда. Вы слишком серьезны. Все глупости на земле делаются именно с этим выражением лица… Улыбайтесь, господа… Улыбайтесь…

 — И даже после этого я не Ипполит!

 Каждая проходящая минута — это еще один шанс все изменить

 А это Шура — симпатичная, но, к сожалению, активная. Когда-то её выдвинули на общественную работу и с тех пор никак не могут задвинуть обратно.

 Она в принципе не знает, что на свете бывают дети. Она уверена, что они появляются на свет взрослыми, согласно штатному расписанию, с должностью и окладом.

 — Она не женщина, она директор.

 Гюльчатай, открой личико!

 — Чем угощаете, голубчики?
 — Извините, Ваше сиятельство, опять икрой.
 — Опять?! Безобразие!

 — Вы не женщина, вы тетрадь в клеточку!  Садитесь, пожалуйста. Спасибо, я пешком постою…

 Работаем, страус, работаем!

 Хэллоу. Общежитие слушает.

 Мы, бояре, народ работащий. такая уж наша боярская доля

 Гена, тебе очень тяжело? Давай я понесу чемоданы, а ты понесешь меня

 Знатный зверюга!.. Мех! Сало! Шкварок нажарю!

Усы, лапы, хвост! Вот мои документы(Простоквашино)

 Кто у вас в цари, к примеру, последний? Никого? Так я – первый!

 — Ну вот… день взятия Бастилии впустую прошел!

 А я сошла с ума…какаая досада.

Мой папа очень хотел мальчика, а родилась девочка.
— Как назвали-то?
— Кого?
— Девчушку-то??
— Раиса Захаровна!

Простите, что помешал вам деньги прятать.  

Равнодушие — это паралич души.Чехов

Если хочешь, чтобы у тебя было мало времени, — ничего не делай.А.П. Чехов

У русского человека единственная надежда — это выиграть двести тысяч.Чехов

Писатель должен много писать, но не должен спешить.Чехов

Ехать с женой в Париж все равно, что ехать в Тулу со своим самоваром. 

Жизнь, по сути, очень простая штука и человеку нужно приложить много усилий, чтобы ее испортить.Чехов

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